Denizen Script Language Explanations

Language Explanations explain components of Denizen in a more direct and technical way than The Beginner's Guide.

Showing 1 out of 77 language explanations...
NameTag Fallbacks
DescriptionTag fallbacks (AKA "tag alternatives") are a system designed to allow scripters to automatically handle tag errors.

Fallbacks are implemented as special "magic tags" that look like any other tag-part, but override the error handler. These are "if_null", "exists", and "is_truthy".

A tag without a fallback might look like "<>".
This tag works fine as long as there's a linked player, but what if a player isn't always available?
Normally, this situation would display an error in the console debug logs, and return plaintext "" in the script.
A fallback can help us handle the problem more gracefully.
That same tag with a fallback would look like "<[Steve]>".
Now, when there isn't a player available, there will not be an error, and the tag will simply return "Steve".

This format is the same for basically all tags. "<[Fallback here]>".
For another example, "<player.flag[myflag].if_null[0]>" returns either the value of the flag, or "0" if the flag is not present (or if there's no player).

The "exists" fallback-tag is available for checking whether an object exists and is valid.
What if we want to check if there even is a linked player? We don't have a "<has_player>" tag to do that, so what can we do?

- if <player.exists>:

The above example demonstrates using a fallback to check if a player is valid.
The if block will run only if there is not a player valid (you might, for example, place the "stop" command inside).

"Exists" is useful when you *only* need a check, however you often need to grab a value and verify it after.
Consider the following example, often found in command scripts:

- define target <server.match_player[<context.args.get[1]>].if_null[null]>
- if <[target]> == null:
    - narrate "<&[error]>Invalid player!"
    - stop
- narrate "<&[base]>You chose <&[emphasis]><[target].name><&[base]>!"

We use the word "null" in the above example, as well as in the tag name itself. This is a common programming term that means "no object is present".
"if_null" is the actual tag name, however the input value of "null" isn't actually a functionality of Denizen, it's just a word we choose for clarity.
You could just as easily do "- if <player.if_null[nothing]> == nothing:", or for that matter "- if <player.if_null[cheese]> == cheese:".
A player object takes the form "[email protected]", so it will therefore never exactly match any simple word, so there's no coincidental match edge-case to worry about.
Note that this won't work so perfect for things like a user input or fully dynamic value,
so in those cases you may want to use the "exists" tag explicitly to guarantee no potential conflict.

Fallbacks can be tags themselves. So, for example, if we want either a custom flag-based display name, or if not available, the player's base name,
we can do: "<player.flag[display_name].if_null[<>]>".
You can as well chain these: "<player.flag[good_name].if_null[<player.flag[bad_name].if_null[<>]>]>".

Note that fallbacks will *hide errors*. Generally, the only errors you should ever hide are ones you're expecting that are fine.
Don't use a fallback on a "<>" tag, for example, if there should always be a player present when the script runs.
That tag should only ever have a fallback when the script is meant to still work without a player attached.
If you carelessly apply fallbacks to all tags, you might end up not realizing there's a problem in your script until it's affecting real players.
You want to solve errors in testing, not ten months later when a player mentions to you "that shop NPC let me buy things even when I had $0"!

Prior to Denizen 1.2.0, fallbacks exclusively worked with a special "||" syntax, like "- if <player||null> == null:"
This syntax is still fully supported at time of writing, however the newer tag-based format is considered clearer and easier to learn.
GroupTag System